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Традиции Великобритании и России
Цели данной творческой работы:
Образовательный аспект - расширить эрудицию учащихся, повысить интерес к изучению английского языка
Воспитательный аспект - воспитание уважительного отношения к фактам иностранной культуры, осознание своей культуры через контекст культуры англоязычных стран
Социокультурный аспект - знакомство с одной из популярных традиций -Easter Celebrations в Великобритании.


They say ‘so many countries, so many customs.’ It’s natural, that different countries have different cultures, different customs and traditions. Each nationality has its own features. For example, the English are said to be very conservative, while the Russian are said to be generous and plain. But, as we all are creatures of our God, The Lord and Creator, we have much in common.
Both Russia and the United Kingdom are Christian countries, so the main Christian holidays in our countries are the same: Christmas and Easter, although in Russia we celebrate these holidays 13 days later than in Britain. Russians celebrate Christmas on the 7th of January, while the English celebrate it on the 25th of December. Until 1918, Russia had the Julian calendar, whilst the majority of European countries had adopted the Gregorian calendar long before. By this time the accumulated difference between the calendars was 13 days. Thus, the same holiday had different dates in Europe and in Russia. The Russian state took the decision to join the Gregorian system of chronology in 1918. The Russian Orthodox Church, however, stuck to the so-called “old style” (the Julian calendar), hence the different dates.

Easter



The greatest Christian festival of the year is Easter. Svetloe kristovo voskresenie is the greatest solemn holiday of Christians. On this day the ancient prediction of Judaic prophets was fulfilled, and the Savior has resurrected from the dead. This wonderful event has provoked reverential trembling in disciples of the Christ and has strengthened their belief. Jesus' resurrection marks a victory of immortal soul over a transitory flesh, a celebration of belief of an eternal life for Christians. Having accepted martyr death, He redeemed sins of mankind with His blood. This light and kind holiday carries belief, hope and love with itself.
There are some interpretations of the name of this holiday:
 The Russian word “Пасха” comes from the Greek “pasha” which comes from the Hebrew “pesakh” meaning Passover «переходить». This is a Jewish spring holiday which dates back to the days of the Old Testament. After the Pharaoh would not let the people of Israel leave Egypt, God killed every first-born in Egypt. However, he spared (passed over) Jewish families who marked their thresholds with lamb’s blood.
 The name “Easter” itself derives from the name of the Saxon goddess of spring and of the Dawn – Eostre (Eastre). The name “Eastre” was also used to denote ancient Norse festival of Spring sun, which celebrated the awakening of new life and the death of winter.

The date of Easter
Jesus had gone to Jerusalem to participate in the Passover celebrations and was crucified after it first day. Consequently, for many years Easter was celebrated of this same date. Passover, however, was a movable festival (Identified by the lunar calendar), while Christians believed that Easter should always fall on a Sunday, the day Christ was resurrected. It was until the year 325 A.D. (when Emperor Constantine was the ruler), that a council churchmen assisted by astronomers decided that Easter should fall on the first Sunday after first full moon on the first of spring (March 21) or thereafter. The matter was settled until 1582 when the Julian calendar was replaced by the Georgian one, the resulting in a difference of eleven days. All Roman Catholic nations accepted the new calendar immediately with the exception of the Great Britain and its colonies which did not make the changes until 1752. The Eastern Orthodox Church still follows the Julian calendar which results in the later observance of Easter by it members.
It is either in March or April, and millions of people joyously observe Christ's resurrection. This holy day never comes before March 22 (April) or after April 25 (May 8).
Eastertide
Last week of Lent – the last week before Easter is called the Holy Week. It is accompanied by special, very mournful divine services. The Holy Week is an annual memoirs on the events preceded martyr sufferings of Jesus Christ, and on death of the Savior.
With excitement we are getting a grasp of the story about last days of Jesus Christ on the earth. We are getting a grasp and turning over in our mind: what the Lord taught, spoke to people in His last terrestrial hours.

When Jesus was about thirty years old, he began teaching, preaching and healing the sick. His fame spread quickly. Soon he had twelve disciples. They went with Jesus and learned from him as he walked through the countryside talking to people.
One spring Jesus rode on a donkey into Jerusalem to celebrate the Passover, the spring festival of the Jews. People cheered and waved branches of palm trees to welcome him, they crowded around to listen and praise him. In honour of this day Christian churches all over the world celebrate Palm (Pussy willow) Sunday, the first day of Holy Week.
On Thursday evening Jesus ate the Passover supper in Jerusalem with his twelve disciples. During the meal he rose, took a basin of water and began to wash the feet of his disciples. When he finished, he said “Love one another even as I have loved you”. It was on the evening of the day we call Maundy Thursday. Maundy Thursday commemorates the Last Super, during which Jesus gave His disciples His final words of comfort, help and guidance. He also reminded them that they were obliged to keep His commandment, to love the Father and each other.

After washing the feet of his disciples, Jesus led them to a large garden outside the walls of Jerusalem. Towards morning, Judas, one of the twelve disciples, led a band of temple guards to the garden. They seized Jesus. The other disciples were so afraid they ran away.

The council of priests found Jesus guilty of blasphemy for claiming to be the son of God. They took him to a hill outside Jerusalem and nailed him to a cross like a common thief.
This happened on Friday morning, a day we call Good Friday or God’s Friday.
Good Friday commemorates the crucifixion and that is why it is the most solemn day of Holy Week. Sadness, prayer and mourning characterize church services held on that day.

Before the sun went down on that first Good Friday in Jerusalem, a friend of Jesus took his lifeless body from the cross. He laid it in a stone tomb and rolled a great stone in front of it.
Good Friday is followed by Easter Eve, the Saturday when Christ rested in the tomb. This fact is observed in some churches by an Easter Vigil and the lighting of Paschal candles. Decorated with five grains of incense for the five wounds Jesus received on the cross, huge candles are blessed on Easter Eve. That is why Easter Eve is sometimes called the “Night of Illumination”.
At sunrise on Sunday morning, Mary Magdalene and two other women went to the tomb. The big stone had been rolled away! They looked into the tomb and saw a young man in a white robe. He said: “You seek Jesus of Nazareth, who was crucified. He is risen.” Then all remembered: while they were still in Galilee, Jesus had told them that he would be crucified and three days later would rise again. This was the third day - Easter Sunday – the day of his resurrection.
Easter Sunday and Easter Monday end Holy Week.


Easter Traditions and Symbols in Russia and Great Britain
Easter Symbols
Great Britain Russia
The Cross
Christ was crucified on a cross, so the cross has come to have a special meaning to Christians
The Egg
Egg represents new life. Long ago some people believed that the Earth was hatched from a gigantic egg
The Candle
is a symbol of Jesus Christ, and its holy flame is a symbol of Resurrection.
The Rabbit
In ancient Egypt the rabbit symbolized the Moon. It also symbolized new life and birth. The rabbit is a symbol of the spring festival.
Kulich
is a tasty Easter loaf floured with sweets and raisins. The kulich is round in shape.
The Lamb
At one time the Jews sacrificed a lamb during the Passover festival and early Christians adopted this as a sign of Christ’s sacrifice on the cross.
Pasha
a symbol of God's grave.
It is a ritual dish made of sour cream, sugar, eggs, raisins and butter. The pasha is square in shape.
The Lily
Trumpet-shaped white flowers symbolize purity, virtue, innocence, hope and life – the spiritual essence of Easter
Hot cross buns
These small sweet buns, marked with a cross of white icing, may have originated in pre - Christian times.

EASTER EGGS
An egg is a main symbol of Easter which means a new life and revival for Christians. For this reason it is an obligatory element of many Easter customs and games.
The custom to give each other painted eggs is thought up not by Christians. So ancient Egyptians and Persians exchanged them within the limits of celebrating the beginning of spring. Eggs meant then a wish of fertility.
Usually Easter eggs are painted in bright colors. The most popular is red or purple which symbolize sacrificial blood of the Christ. According to the legend, Maria Magdalena presented an egg of such color to emperor Tiberius with words: «Christ is risen!». Other favourite colours of painted eggs are yellow and green which remind of spring, sun and greens.


EASTER RABBIT
The rabbit (or a hare) is an integral attribute of Easter holidays, as well as a painted egg. Similarly to an egg, this small animal symbolized fertility, spring and updating. Not absolutely clearly, for what reason the rabbit began to associate with Easter. One of the versions says, that it designates the prosperity for followers of the doctrine of Christ.
In many countries children trusted and believe now, if they behave well, Easter Rabbit comes before the holiday and postpones painted eggs in a nest. The nest (or a basket) should be prepared in advance in a secluded cosy place. Kids usually used for this purpose their headdresses, displaying them in sheds, barns and other lonely premises. On festive Sunday they come to the garden and search for the colourful eggs brought by the rabbit. Having found and picked up them, kids gather at top of a hill and roll downwards these eggs. It symbolizes the stones showered from a tomb of the Christ during His resurrection.
Before Easter this funny character can be met everywhere and in different kinds. Rabbits are made of chocolate, marzipan and other delicious materials. They are sewn from plush and fur, mould from clay. The "rabbit" ornament decorates many Easter subjects: celebratory cloths, napkins, utensils. And, certainly, cards.

EASTER LAMB
In many Christian countries Easter is also connected with image of the lamb. On Easter cards it is often represented near to a cross and the inscription «Agnus Dei».
It is interesting, that during pre-Christian times Jews, marking spring festival Pesah, sacrificed lambs. Early Christians did not forget this custom, but attached other significance to it. Now the sacrificial innocent person lamb symbolizes mild meek death of the Christ.
Thus it is quite aware why roust lamb takes the place of honour on the Easter dinner table in many European countries. In Russia we have an inoffensive curd pasha (sweet cream-cheese dish) instead of bloody meat dish.
EASTER CANDLE
The tradition to put a great candle at the altar during night Easter service exists in all Christian countries. From this candle all other lamps in church are inflamed. This ceremony arose in the 4th century of our era, and the main candle symbolized Jesus Christ and its sacred flame is a symbol of His Resurrection.
In olden times parishioners carried candles with blessed fire home that with their help to inflame lamps at home and to kindle the hearth.
This custom symbolized a victim of the Christ who gave his life for the sake of people.


THE EASTER LILY
Often called the «white robed apostles of hope», lilies were found growing in the Garden of Gethsemane after Christ’s agony. Traditions has it that the beautiful white lilies sprung up where drops of Christ’s sweat fell to the ground in His final hours of sorrow and deep distress. Churches continue this tradition at Easter time by banking their altars and
surrounding their crosses with masses of Easter Lilies, to commemorate the resurrection of Jesus Christ and hope of life everlasting.
Since the beginning of time, lilies have played significant roles in allegorical tales concerning the sacrament of motherhood.
The pure white lily has long been closely associated with the Virgin Mary. In early paintings, the Angel Gabriel is pictured extending to the Virgin Mary a branch of pure white lilies, announcing that she is to be the mother of the Christ Child. In other paintings saints are pictured bringing vases full of white lilies to Mary and the infant Jesus. St. Joseph is depicted holding a lily-branch in his hand, indicating that his wife Mary was a virgin.
The legend is told that when the Virgin Mary’s tomb was visited three days after her burial, it was found empty save for bunches of majestic white lilies. Early writers and artists made the lily the emblem of the Annunciation, the Resurrection of the Virgin.
A mark of purity and grace throughout the ages, the regal white lily is a fitting symbol of the greater meaning of Easter. Gracing millions of homes and churches, the flowers embody joy, hope and life. Whether given as a gift or enjoyed in your own home, the Easter lily serves as a beautiful reminder that Easter is a time for rejoicing and celebrating.

HOT CROSS BUNS
Hot rolls with baked fruit and spices and with a cross on their surface are traditional Easter refreshments in England. They can be baked at night just before Easter. There is an ancient English song about magnificent Easter rolls:
Hot cross buns. hot cross buns.
One a penny, two a penny.
Hot cross buns
If you have no daughters,
Give them to your sons,
One a penny, two a penny,
Hot cross buns.

KULICH is baked in memory of how Christ tasted bread with His disciples in order they to believe in His revival. As an ornament of kulich, the painted millet is recommended. The kulich is preserved from Easter until Ascension Day (40 days after Easter).

PASHA is a symbol of God's Coffin. It replaces the Old Testament’s Agnus Dei on a festival table and reminds, that time of bloody victims has passed.
Earlier in Russia a slice was cut off from the pasha and stored as a medicine. It is a ritual dish made of sour cream, sugar, eggs, raisins and butter. There are many different kinds of pasha: white made of cream, and red – of baked milk, and pink - with raspberry jam... The pasha is square in shape.


Easter Traditions, Customs
There are many Easter traditions and customs in Russia.
Time of Easter service was considered to be favourable for fulfilment of magic actions and fortune-telling, in particular for ensuring of success in any business. For example, with the words of the priest "Christ is risen" hunters shot in air next to a church threshold, believing, that their guns would shot without a miss; fishermen instead of the answer “He is risen indeed!” replied: “And I have fish”, believing that they provided full networks for all season; and girls addressed to the God with the request to send them bridegrooms.
They considered, that kind actions made in favour of others, especially of people deprived by destiny, helped to remove a sin from the soul. So, it was accepted to collect money for the repayment of debtors from prisons in Russia. Before this holiday all houses were carefully cleaned, new costumes were sewed.
Бывало, накрывается
В гостиной стол огромнейший,
На нем и яйца красные,
И пасха, и кулич!
Н. А. Некрасов
The Easter breakfast usually passed in a close family circle as it was not accepted to go on a visit on the first day of Easter. The first Easter egg was eaten by the whole family, having divided the egg according to the number of members of family. The custom to share an Easter egg with neighbours received symbolical interpretations: for example, to find the road home to a person who had lost the way in a wood it was enough to remember with whom he/she had shared an Easter egg.
Many magic properties were attributed to the consecrated Easter eggs and their shell. With an Easter egg people went round the burning house/place or threw an egg in the fire, and hoped that it will help to stop a fire. With Easter eggs farmers looked for the lost cattle, or put them into sowing grain, or stroked the cow at the first spring pasture with them, or dug them in a field that the size of flax’ head was about an egg.
Except pasha, kulich and eggs there should be a lamb baked from the dough, sugar and butter on the Easter table. It is a symbol reminding of sacrificial destruction of Christ in expiation of sins of all mankind. As Easter is first of all a symbol of resurrection and revival, on the table there should be some shot out wheaten grain: the greens symbolizes dying and returning to a new life.
Among Easter entertainments games with painted eggs took the basic place, first of all – rolling eggs on the ground or from special trays, and also «битки» - smashing up coloured eggs.
Exchanging eggs in Russia symbolizes that only good will stay in people's souls and all that is evil, like the egg shell will disappear.
Visiting the cemetery is an other Russian custom. In some Russian regions departed relatives are remembered at Easter: people would go to cemeteries and leave food, usually kulich and pasha, for the dead.

Britain has its own Easter traditions.
The tradition to decorate churches and home with candles during Easter days was always popular. To do ornaments for Easter candles is a favourite family entertainment as it allows to let out children’s imagination.
White wax of which the candle is made, symbolizes Jesus Christ's cleanliness, a wick - humanity, and a flame - its divine origin. On an Easter candle it is often possible to see engravings of a cross and the Greek letters of an alpha and omega which show, that the God is omnipresent.
The Easter cross is of great importance in the Christian world as it reminds of Jesus' death, which He has accepted for people. However, it is also a symbol of His resurrection and immortality, sacrifice - on the one hand, and a symbol of a new life – on the other.
It is accepted to decorate churches, rooms and houses, festival tables with flowers. With white lilies the altar in the church is usually decorated. They are one of favourite gifts for this holiday.
On Maundy Thursday (the Thursday before Good Friday), the Queen goes to Westminster Abbey or Southward Cathedral and gives Maundy money to poor people. The number of chosen people depends on the Queen’s age. The Queen gives each person a red purse and a white purse. The white purse contains coins, which have been specially made for the occasion. The number of coins also depends on the Queens age. The red purse contains money for food - usually about &5. This custom – based on the washing of the disciples’ feet Bible, goes back to the thirteenth century. At that time, the kings and queens of England used to wash the feet of the poor and then give them money. The feet washing tradition stopped in 1754. Today the poor are given only the money.
There are a lot of entertainments and competitions connected with Easter eggs. With beautiful eggs painted manually, people decorate festival dinner tables, think out and compete in culinary (cookery) recipes of preparation egg tasty things.

Morning of “strastnoj pyatnitsy” which is called Good Friday in England begins with a breakfast. The main dish on the breakfast-table is a fresh hot cross bun. Hot cross buns are spicy and light rolls with raisin, sometimes with candied fruits inside. They cut a cross on the rolls before baking. Burning from spices in a mouth while eating rolls should remind of Jesus' sufferings.
One considers that the cross on rolls was kept since the pre-Christian period of the life in England when it symbolized the sun and approach of spring. Now the cross is a symbol of revival, and in the ancient time the cross on the roll meant the sun and fire, and four parts of the roll – four seasons.
It was also supposed to have curative powers, especially for ailments like dysentery, diarrhea, whooping-cough, and the complaint known as “summer sickness”. When illness came, as much as was necessary was finely grated and mixed with milk or water, to make a medicine which the patient drank. In some areas, powdered buns, mixed in a warm mash, were occasionally given to ailing cattle. There is also another superstition: rolls protect the house from malicious spirits. Therefore, people used to hang up these buns on the kitchen ceilings.

The British tradition of Easter baskets also dates back to ancient times, when people offered their eggs in grass nests to Eostre. Today's Easter baskets are filled with eggs and sweets and decorated with ribbons, flowers and straw.


In olden time, a holiday of Easter was accompanied by games and fun.
Easter Egg Games. Eggs play an important part in Easter sports. Two traditional egg games are the Easter Egg Roll and the Easter Egg Hunt. The rules of the first game are to see who can roll a hard-boiled egg without breaking it. During the second game children try to find eggs, which the Easter Bunny has hidden for them.
Easter - egg tree. The Germans were the first to make an Easter - egg tree. They coloured and decorated the shells of eggs and hung them on a tree outdoors.
Easter Parade and Wearing New Clothes. The tradition of wearing new clothes on Easter could be dated back to first-century Christians. Like many other Easter symbols, the new clothes represent the new life offered through the death and Resurrection of Jesus. People believe that good luck can be ensured for the year by wearing three new things on Easter Sunday.
Sometimes the clergy and laymen played a ball, probably a version of football. As a prize special Easter fruitcakes or puddings were handed over.
In some parishes of counties of Dorset and Devon after service on Good Friday, a church servant carried special white fruitcakes as an Easter refreshment to houses in the district. These fruitcakes were17-20 sm or 10 sm in diameter, and had bitter-sweet taste. For it the church servant received monetary reward from owners which depends on their financial position and generosity.
There were and are original traditions (most likely, pagan origin) in relations between women and men in Easter week. Easter Monday was a woman's day, Tuesday was a man's one. For example, in Great Britain the women had the right to beat their husbands on Monday. And the next day (on Tuesday) the men had the right to beat their wives.
During Easter week mass youth shower-bath was popular. Monday was a woman's day, Tuesday was a man's one. The guy tried to pour over the girl he liked and received painted eggs or other gifts if the girl liked that boy. It is interesting, that for the girl it was shameful to remain dry: men did not pour over those whose behaviour was condemned.
In northern England crowds of men went out on the streets and, having met a woman, lifted her three times above the ground. As "compensation" for such behaviour they received a kiss or a silver penny.
During the Easter Holidays the attention of the progressive people in the Great Britain and indeed throughout the world is riveted first and foremost on the Easter Pease Marches, which took place for the first time in 1958 and have since become traditional. The people who participate in these marches come from different sections of society.
The character of the marches has changes over the years. The high-point was reached in the early sixties.
More recent years have seen a rise in the number of the people attending the annual Easter March, as global problems have begun to affect the conscience of a broader section of the English population.
Anyone near London goes to the Easter parade on Easter Monday. It takes place in Battersea Park, south of the River Thames. There are bands, TV personalities, drum majorettes, decorated Lorries are called floats. The float from the island of Jersey is always very popular: it is covered with flowers from the island, and the Easter Princess sits on it.
Legend of the Easter egg

The custom to give eggs as a present existed as long ago as pagan tribes. It is connected with spring reawakening of the nature, with hopes for a rich crop in a new year. 3000 years ago Persians considered an egg to be a symbol of a new life. During the excavations of Etruscan tombs ostrich's and hen’s eggs were found out. All mythologies of the world store the legends connected with an egg, as a source of the origin of everything that exists in this world.
For the first Christians the egg became a symbol of Christ’s resurrection, and after every Easter church service the consecrated eggs were distributed to believers.
In ancient Rome peasants dug in the painted eggs in the ground that gods would send them a good harvest. In Middle Ages eggs were given to servants, children and friends as other Easter gifts. In many European countries the tradition to prepare an omelette for Easter breakfast from the eggs which had been laid by the hen exactly on Good Friday was widespread.
According to the legend, the sacred Maria Magdalena presented the first Easter egg to the Roman emperor Tiberius. Soon after the ascent of Christ the Saviour to the heaven Maria Magdalena came to Rome for the Evangelical sermon. In those days it was accepted to come to the emperor with gifts. Rich people brought jewelry, and poor men - what they had. Therefore Maria Magdalena who had nothing, except her belief in Jesus, reached out an egg to the emperor Tiberius with an exclamation: “Christ is risen!” The emperor, doubting in those words, noticed, that nobody could revive from the dead and that it was difficult to believe in it, so as a white egg could become red. Hardly Tiberius spoke these words as the egg started getting bright red.
Since then a painted egg has become an integral part of the most important Christian holiday. Today modern technologies allow to transform this traditional Easter gift into the real masterpiece of art. The result depends only on the rich imagination of the artist.


Liqueur-glass-Egg Pendant Pendant Shaped like
Unknown jeweller with an initial "D" Fabergé's firm a Sprig of a Lily of the Valley
Fabergé's firm

Presently some people prefer to give the Easter eggs painted with their own hands to relatives and friends.





Legend of Easter Bunny
Long ago in a small village the mothers had no money to buy their children presents for Easter. They painted eggs with lots of beautiful pictures and hid them in the forest near the village. When the children went to play in the forest on Easter Sunday they saw the eggs but they didn't know where they had come from. Suddenly a hare ran out from behind a pile of eggs and the children started shouting: "They are hare's eggs!".


Easter is all seen as necessary but preliminary to the full climax of the Resurrection, in which all that has come before reaches fulfillment and fruition. Pasha (Easter) is the primary act that fulfils the purpose of Christ's ministry on earth - to defeat death by dying and to purify and exalt humanity by voluntarily assuming and overcoming human frailty. This is succinctly summarized by the Orthodox Easter hymn "Christ is Risen":
English Russian
Christ is risen from the dead,
Trampling down death by death,
And upon those in the tombs
Bestowing life! Христос воскресе из мертвых,
Смертию смерть поправ,
И сущим во гробех
живот Даровав!



Trust God
Remember the sun won't always shine
There'll be thunder, clouds and rain;
Dreary days and stormy skies
Vicissitudes and pain.
And when your problems mount and grow,
And you can see no end
Turn to God and Trust Him,
He will be your friend.
Talk to God, He'll listen,
When your future looks so dim;
The sun will shine again for you,
When you put your trust in Him.























Категория: Проекты | Добавил: adm_school14-v (15.02.2008) | Автор: Мохова Варвара Павловна
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